Tag Archives: review

Mineral balance is critical for healthy body functions – Role of the kidneys and increasing kidney disease


Importance of healthy kidney function is to maintain a balance of Potassium, Phosphorous and calcium and Vitamin D. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects every body function, including or through mineral imbalance in body.
Read below an extract from “Chronic Kidney Care” by Sharon Broscious and Judith Castognola, critical care nurses or you may want to click here to read it in detail in the original journal article. Why are more people presenting with sickened kidneys?

Electrolyte Balance
Multiple electrolyte levels are altered in patients with CKD. Potassium levels may be normal until late in ESRD, and elevated potassium levels are often associated with CKD because of the inability of the kidney to excrete potassium as a result of decreased GFR. In addition, when metabolic acidosis is present, potassium ions shift from the intracellular compartment to the extracellular space in exchange for H+, in an effort to maintain extra-cellular acid-base balance. The kidneys normally excrete 40 to 60 mmol of potassium daily.11 J.M.’s potassium level was 5.8 mmol/L, increasing his risk for fatal dysrhythmias.

Serum phosphorus and calcium levels are also altered in CKD. When GFR is less than 30 to 50 mL/min per 1.73 m2, phosphorus excretion is impaired.10 Because of the reciprocal relationship between phosphorus and calcium, this increased retention of phosphorus results in a decrease in the serum level of calcium. Three additional mechanisms can affect calcium level. Calcium is found in 3 forms in the blood: attached to protein, attached to other complexes, and free or ionized. Because some calcium is bound to protein, total serum calcium level can decrease when albumin level decreases. J.M. had proteinuria. This loss of albumin can contribute to a decreased serum level of calcium. CKD also has an effect on vitamin D synthesis. The kidneys normally convert inactive vitamin D to its active form: 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol.11 Impaired vitamin D synthesis results in decreased absorption of calcium in the gastrointestinal tract. The third mechanism that affects serum levels of calcium is the endocrine system. When the serum level of calcium decreases, the parathyroid gland increases its secretion of parathyroid hormone, causing calcium to be released from the bone and compensating for the decreased serum level of calcium.12 Results of J.M.’s laboratory tests showed a calcium level of 2.05 mmol/L (8.2 mg/dL) and a phosphorus level of 3.91 mmol/L (12.1 mg/dL), indicating impaired phosphorus excretion and a reciprocal decrease in calcium level.

To read more click here. You may want to continue reading to learn about:
how the healthy and diseased kidneys balance electrolytes;
the increasing public health care costs to take care of increasing number of individuals with failind kidneys;
the role of parathyroid hormone in maintaining electrolyte balance;
the alterations in excretory functions
how anemia results from chronic kidney disease
how chronic kidney disease affects every body function

Chronic Kidney Disease
Acute Manifestations and Role of Critical Care Nurses
Sharon K. Broscious, RN, DSN, CCRN and Judith Castagnola, RN, MSN
+ Author Affiliations

Sharon K. Broscious is an associate professor in the School of Nursing at Troy University, Atlantic Region, in Norfolk, Va.
Judith Castagnola is a facility administrator at DaVita Peninsula Dialysis in Newport News, Va.
Corresponding author: Sharon K. Broscious, Troy University, Atlantic Region, 5425 Robin Hood Rd, Ste B1, Norfolk, VA 23513.
Do let Sharon Broscious know that you appreciated this article by emailing the author: (e-mail: sbroscious@troy.edu)

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Can you get tendon damage, tendonitis, or tendon rupture by taking an antibiotic?


Yes,in rare occasions you can. If you had a kidney transplant, or are taking corticosteroids, or are over 60 years of age are some of the known risk factors. This medication may cause tendon damage during or after treatment. So, measure the risk versus benefit before taking this antibiotic.  In addition, this medication can also cause your retina to be damaged when exposed to sunlight. So, if you do take this medication, even if the busy doctor forgets to warn you, be aware that you must protect and shield your eyes from sunlight. This is especially more important if you are also taking corticosteroids, which also may damage your retina. Would alternatives mentioned below work? Would changing a life-style factor work?

In the last few decades, doctors have prescribed antibiotics to cure all kinds of bacterial diseases ranging from life – threatening to minor. They did not realize that wide-scale use of antibiotics could result in a rise of resistant bacteria that could evade the commonly prescribed antibiotics and continue their infectious state. This medication, Ciprofloxacin, a class of drugs called quinolone antibiotics, works. So, as ofthe year 2012, doctors may prescribe Ciprofloxacin. However, it has the severe side reactions discussed above in certain patients. You may want to click here (medicine.net) and here (drugs.com) to learn more about the drug Ciprofloxacin. Cipro has been stockpiled to fight a potential anthrax attack by terrorists. If prescribed Cipro, do not take it with milk or milk products or with calcium fortified juice. Also, read up the two links above. There are additional risk factors such as low potassium levels is another risk factor.

When should you take antibiotics?Doctors have to see several patients in a day to make enough money to pay their high malpractice insurance and other bills. So, they are too rushed to go over all the risk factors that you as an individual should consider. So, it is your job to be aware. READ up the two links above and more before you take any antibiotic, especially for a minor inflammation. However, if there is a risk for tetanus from a minor cut which can be deadly or such a life-threatening condition which might be major, do act quickly on the recommendation of your doctor, and take an effective antibiotic. That is why antibiotics were discovered by Alexander Flemming. To save lives.

So, what should you do?
1) Ask your doctor if it is a life – threatening condition? If the answer is yes, then naturally, the benefit to taking the drug may out weigh the risks.
2) Read up more about this drug to learn about the risk factors here and here.
3) Read up more about this drug to learn about how important it is to follow the exact routine of when to take the medicine. You must take it at the exact same time everyday to maintain the same amount of drug inside your body.
4) Certain herbs like Oregano and Turmeric and just eating more healthy foods with plant tannins help fight the bacteria naturally. Consider those options. They take longer because they are less effective immediately, however, bacteria are fought by helping your body’s immune system attack the offending bacteria instead of an artificial antibiotic chemical. You may read our article on G-proteins, and how they interact inside your body’s cells in complex ways, so that doctors really still do not fully understand why something has a severe side reaction in one person and be absolutely safe in another.
5) Are you post-menopausal? Well, some doctors believe that hormonal changes after menopause change your ability to digest foods that you had no problem digesting before menopause. Perhaps, a nutritional change or overhaul might solve the issue that might mimic an infection but is largely a result of hormonal change, for example a stomach irritation. Some find that eliminating milk or gluten helps. Imagine, if eliminating a food can stop you from using an antibiotic that may rupture or damage a tendon, wouldn’t you rather try that option?

 

It is your body or the body of your loved one. Be empowered. Eat healthy. Stay healthy. If you get sick, be proactive. Read before you take a dangerous antibiotic, if your condition is not life threatening. Why risk damaging your perfectly healty tendon? You may end up needing surgery for a damaged tendon. Is that really something you would want to risk if all you are suffering from is a minor infection, which a temporary life-style change might safely help?

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Research on why link gays or lesbians and autism?


An irate reader, Felix, commented on our article “Are there any gays and lesbians who are autistic” saying it was biased towards unhappy, bisexual women. So, this article addresses our reader Felix’s criticism and delves further into articles that answer the question we asked, well, “Are there any gays and lesbians who are autistic?” and why is it so difficult to get an answer to the question? This article is for our reader, Felix.

We found two articles:
(1)Co-occurence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in individuals with Gender Dysphoria. This is not a rare phenomenon, notes this article in what was a poster presentation in a conference in Chicago in 2009 by a group of psychologists from Netherlands. To know their names you may click here. They noted that only case studies have been published by authors with very different views. Yet, their clinical experience suggested that the co-existence of gender dysphoria (they explain that it is individuals unsure of their sexual orientation or not specified gender orientation or a not otherwise specified diagnosis) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not a rare phenomenon. They found that the developmental trajectory of individuals with the two disorders vary considerably and each requires a special clinical approach. They found that 6% of 233 children and adolescents could be diagnosed with this. You may click here to read this article’s 2009 abstract in more detail.

(2)An exploration into dual citizenship – homosexuality and autism, and changing the work environment.

By Terry Walker.tiggerworld1 at earthlink.net, on 2003 October 2. You may click here to see the articles and the slides. They also have a links for the impatient to quickly read the relevant details.
You may directly reach their link to a summary for the human resources department by clicking here.
Terry Walker presented as an autistic in the GLTB “dual citizenship” workshop of the “Out & Equal” with suggestions for workplace changes to an audience of 600 people focussed on improving the workplace environment. He emphasized that he could speak only from his own experience and it in no way represented all autistics or all queers (his words), but felt this was the proper venue to record his observations. Terry says: Quote

Why link autism advocacy with gay advocacy?

The short answer is that I’m certain both communities would benefit from the association.

The experience of being gay is not the same as the experience of being autistic. I am both, and I recognize this difference. The experiences, however, do have similarities in both their fundamental nature and their historical background. (I’ll explain those two points in a moment.) Furthermore, I think that these ties could and should be strengthened as part of the emerging Neurodiversity movement. GLBT, Autistic, and Allied people would make a strong force for change in social attitudes and business practices concerning “differently-brained” employees. I encourage these communities to interact in pursuit of that goal.

Fundamental similarity

Both communities share the “minority experience”, the frustration of feeling compelled to adjust to social expectations in a larger world that was designed for different norms. We share a need for restructuring society in a way that will allow us to participate fully. Unquote.

You may read further by clicking here. It is really poignant reading. Please, tell us your views here. We want to hear how you are adjusting in this society with “dual citizenships” and what suggestions you have for a better, more inclusive society.

Related Post
Are there gay and lesbian autistics?

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Are there any Gays and Lesbians who are autistic?


Tony Langdon is credited with the first site dealing with Gay and Autistic says Autism women’s network. When I asked this question and went looking for answers, I found that Kristi and Joe are writing a book on the topic on January 2010, entitled, “Asperger’s and Sexuality for parents of adolescents” and looking for anonymous people to interview on Autism women’s network. So, apparently this was a matter already under discussion. Katherine on the same site listed 12 sites covering this issue. She is the one who said that Tony Langdon was a web presence in the Autralian Autistic community since 1990s, exploring being gay and autistic. Included was also a must see site in the Netherlands.

So, I would suggest that to learn more on this topic, go to Autism women’s network, by clicking here; scroll all the way to the bottom and find Katherine’s list of 12 sites covering this issue. Also, check out the others on the same site: German_Aspie, book authors kritisakai, and AllSaintsAngel, who discuss their issues.

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Why link gays or lesbians and autism?

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“What worries me”: A variety list of 7 posts including this phrase


I wondered how many people are worried and what worries them. Here is a list that I found. Frank Sinatra has a song with lyrics of the song including this phrase and a link leading to a free download for your mobile phone ring is below. There is also a video about worrying about Law School. There is a worry about Orioles trading, Crowd Sourcing, Finding the right man, and more.

Feel free to add your “What worries me” in the comments and share your worry with us.  Especially, about Autism, Aspergers and Allergy and other Autoimmune diseases like Multiple Sclerosis and Juvenile and Adult Rheumatoid Arthritis. Diabetes and Obesity.

Sorrow and worries shared is sorrow and worries halved
Happiness shared is happiness doubled

Together we can halve our worries.

“What worries me”: List of sites in virtual space including this phrase. It is not comprehensive.
1) An email: What worries me is, will we be able to find guys who have a similar thinking process? Tejaswee’s Blog
2) It Worries Me Lyrics
Frank Sinatra

3) That’s What Worries Me
by DAVE SCHULER on APRIL 3, 2012
discussing the bankruptcy of the solar company with the largest grant from DOE
4) What Worries Me About the Crowdfunding Initiatives
Posted: 03/ 8/2012
6:43 pm by Tim Berry, President and Chairman, Palo Alto Software, in Huffington Post
5) Dan Lyons Mar 20, 2012 – What worries me is that now that Daisey has been discredited, people will think that all of this stuff about bad conditions in China was made up, …in The US News with the Title: The True Victims of Mike Daisey’s Lies May Be Those Chinese Workers He Championed
6) What worries me by Andrew Ge in Camden Chat on Feb 7, 2012 – The Baltimore Orioles’ trade of Jeremy Guthrie feels both fair and underwhelming all at once. Are the Orioles in a perpetual cycle of failing to …
7) One Less Worry: What worries me about Law School. A wonderful video. This is a video submission to the Access Group One Less Worry competition and had 825 views to date.

Worries added by our readers:

I also think that mental illness – depression and severe stress – is a serious issue in the legal profession in Australia, and has recently received quite a bit of publicity especially in the Australian law schools.
Author: Wendy, versatile blogger of somethinghigher.

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High Fructose corn syrup – why would anyone educated still consume it?


Two scientifically researched and published papers show the connection between consumption of high fructose corn syrup and NAFLD. One is a review published in Nature reviews and the other a research paper of a three year study. A third research group says that high fructose corn syrup should be declared an environmental toxin. A fourth paper publised by a team of nutritionists in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2004, suggest that the obesity epidemic trend since 1970s is closely related to 1000 fold increase in use of high fructose corn syrup in sweetened beverages. This article has already been cited over 800 times by 2012. Click here to read. Why are these international research teams concerned about the rising public health concern of NAFLD?

1) The review postulates that the Western diet which includes excessive fructose may be leading to Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Which means that liver damage from excessive consumption of alcohol is expected. However, nonalcoholics are often diagnosed with liver damage. These reviewersblame their western diet which includes beverages sweetened with high fructose corn syrup. The damage is in two steps and the second step can be prevented with antioxidants. However, the western diet does not include or is deficient in antioxidants. The combination of high fructose and lack of antioxidants may be contributing to the most frequent liver disease worldwide – NAFLD. To learn more about the toxic effects of sweeteners you may want to write to one of the authors of this review and ask for a copy of a latest february 2012 article in journal Nature entitled:

Public health: The toxic truth about sugar.

Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA. rlustig@peds.ucsf.edu

2) Another group of researchers (Liver Unit, Ziv Medical Center, Safed, Israel and other colleagues)were perplexed when faced with patients with fatty liver when they did not have the traditional risk factors such as obesity, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. So, they conducted a three year, systematic scientific research study with patients with fatty liver and healthy people (controls) with no fatty liver. They used a validated food questionnaire given by a dietician. They followed the daily intake of food and beverages and sources of added sugar. Their results?

80% of the patients with fatty liver consumed sweetened beverages compared to 20% of healthy people. They included 50grams per day of added sugar to their beverages which was considered excessive by the researchers and 40% of the patients with fatty liver consumed four of more of such beverages which were excessively sweetened. Ultrasound findings revealed mild fatty liver in 44% of the cases to severe fatty liver in 18% of the cases.

Soft drink beverage was the only independent variable able to predict a fatty liver in 82.5% of cases.

If you want to encourage more research on such topics encourage these scientists with your words or funding. Write to them at:

Correspondence: Dr Nimer Assy, Liver Unit, Ziv Medical Center, PO Box 1008, Safed 13100, Israel. Telephone 9-724-682-8441, fax 9-724-682-8442, e-mail assy.n@ziv.health.gov.il or ; Email: assy.nimer@gmail.com

Their conclusion is obvious isn’t it? Change your beverage habit. Unsweeten it. If you cannot stop it yourself, just do not introduce your child to sugar or corn syrup sweetened beverages from childhood. The child will never crave a sweetened beverage and prefer plain water, like our healthier ancestors.

3) A third group of researchers say that high fructose corn syrup depletes ATP and causes uric acid to collect in human bodies. They say it is an environmental toxin. Write to this research team to learn more or if you wish to encourage them for further research on the effect of fructose on renal biology and disease.
Johnson RJ, Sanchez-Lozada LG, Nakagawa T.
Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA.
Email: richard.johnson@ucdenver.edu

Question for our readers: What is used to sweeten beverages today? High fructose corn syrup. Is it better than sugar? If yes, why?

To our readers: If you know of a single healthy benefit of high fructose corn syrup, please share it with our readers.
If you are aware of any human health features improved by substituting sugar used for centuries with high fructose corn syrup introduced in recent decades, please share with our readers.

If you cannot stop yourself from having sweetened beverages, just do not introduce your child to sugar or corn syrup sweetened beverages from childhood. Children develop taste buds as infants. The child will probably never crave a sweetened beverage and prefer plain water, like our healthier ancestors. You may want to write to the pediatricians and scientists listed above and ask why they are concerned of this rising public health threat. The more informed you are, the better you can serve your community and prevent it from facing cripling medical expenses in the near future.

If you liked this, you may also enjoy:

1) Diabetes is an Autoimmune Disease

2) Know your G proteins. One of a series of state-of-the-art articles to be posted here to inform you on the roles of G proteins in human health. Over 30% of medicines today aim for your G proteins for therapy and the newer ones are inter-related to your G proteins. If you want to be current in therapy, you would want to know your G proteins.

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Why and how to add Calcium in the diet of a person with Autism Spectrum Disorder


Cells in the brain contain proteins called calcium channels that can regulate Calcium levels within the cells. Calcium levels inside the cells are 10,000 fold lower than Calcium levels outside the cells. The calcium channels are gate keepers of Calcium, allowing only the required amount inside the cell by opening briefly and then the gate shuts. Calcium cannot be changed or transformed by the body, which makes it imperative to regulate calcium levels inside the cells, to prevent it’s build up at toxic levels.

Gene mutation: A mutation in the gene for these gate proteins can alter their structure causing them [calcium gates] to stay open much longer than usual. This allows calcium to continue to enter inside the cell abnormally. The result? An overload of Calcium inside the cell. It is a novel disorder characterized by autism and other features. Read more about the CACNA1C gene and CaV1.2 Calcium channel, for information on where to find geneticists, disease manaagement & therapy and additional information.

Inheritance of calcium channel disorder: Most cases of this calcium channel (CaV1.2) disorder is inherited by a new mutation (G406R) with no previous history of this altered gene in their family.

Possible therapy? Although, the role of this calcium channel as important for the contraction of the heart is known, its role within the cell is not well understood, yet. The disorder is caused by an inability of these Calcium gates to close. What does that result in? Yes, a Calcium overload inside the cells. This also suggested to the researchers that Calcium channel blockers may be useful for treating this disorder.

Researchers: This discovery by Dr Igor Splawski and colleagues demonstrates the importance of Calcium imbalance and established the importance of Calcium in human development and implicates Calcium in cell signaling and Autism.

Did you appreciate this research on Calcium channels? Then, do write to Dr Igor Splawski and let him know that. Email: igor@enders.tch.harvard.edu or Snail mail: Department of Cardiology, Children’s Hospital, Departments of Pediatrics and Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Invite him or his colleagues to discuss the role of Calcium channels in Autism or human development. You will really enjoy his contribution to community – he has over 30 patents.

Although, the gene mutation causes this disorder, it is also clear that too much Calcium cannot be good for a human. That is why, it should not surprise anyone who has read Dr Igor Splawski’s teams’ research papers to learn about other issues when a person eats too much Calcium. Have you heard of women breaking their femur bone in their leg? You will also learn that they regularly have high doses of Calcium supplements to prevent osteoporosis or bone loss in women as they age. It is unclear why eating natural sources of Calcium is safe while eating Calcium in excessive supplement form might cause bones to break.

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Know your G proteins – Autism
Studies linking Autism to obesity during pregnancy – too limited?

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G proteins: the connector proteins that try to prevent Autism Spectrum Disorder


Prof Mark Rasenick’s team in Chicago, Dr Gunner Schulte team in Sweden, and teams of experts all over the world like Dr Robert, Dorsam and Dr Silvio Gutkind, in Universities and industries are studying the G proteins in the developing and degenerating brain. They have a theory that if they understand how the G proteins work, they can cure a number of brain issues. In G proteins may lie an answer on how to cure Autism Spectrum Disorder and also, how to prevent it in the future.

G proteins are made of three proteins named alpha, beta and gamma. There are many different kinds of alpha, beta and gamma proteins and they can combine in many different ways. So, how many kinds of G proteins can there be? Many and more are being discovered. What is the function of the G proteins? They are connectors.

The G protein made up of alpha, beta and gamma proteins

Everyone knows that a connector is either a person who knows a lot of people who know lots more people or a connector is a valve that interconnects two tubes. Similarly, a G protein is a connector. It makes things happen within people. A person is made up of many, many cells, carrying genetic information. Inside each cell, in addition to genes are many different kinds of G proteins. When the cell gets a signal, its genes respond. Well, how does a signal outside the cell get to the genes inside the cell to tell it to respond? The G proteins. They interconnect the protein that receives the signal with the protein that activates the gene.

Now, let’s imagine the human gene receives a signal to die, because the signal was a severe toxin. Does the human being die? No, because survival is a crucial cell behavior. So, for a human being to die, many genes in many cells have to receive a signal to die. Which means, when the human is stimulated by a specific combination of signals rather than a single signal acting alone, only then does the cell collect the information coming from separate signals, integrates this information, and then makes a proper response – to die. The cell may also receive a similar integrated signal for another important human event – to grow and divide and to live. This integration is equivalent to microprocessors in a computer.

G protein connected receptor: When a human smells something or gets an infection or touches a chemical, a signal is received and processed ultimately by the brain. The human responds by “liking” the smell, or “succumbing” or “resisting” the infection or getting a chemical reaction. How does a signal in the environment reach the brain? Signals are received by proteins on the cell surface, called receptors. Within the cell are G proteins which connect these receptors to their target enzyme or ion channel, which ultimately tell the genes how to respond. You would expect a defective G protein to mess up a signal pathway. This is prevented because there appears to be “back up” G proteins which can take care of connector functions to keep the cell’s crucial functions going smoothly. To view a schematic in the journal Nature Reviews Cancer by Drs Robert T. Dorsam and J. Silvio Gutkind click here. It beautifully illustrates how G proteins integrate several receptors receiving many signals through several secondary messengers.

This schematic will also explain why answers to question “which signal causes 1 in 88 or 100 children have autism today” cannot be answered by just one factor like obesity or SHANK gene mutation or An aging father or a G protein mutation.

Second Messengers: Most G protein connected receptors activate a chain of events that alters the concentration of one or more small signaling molecules inside the cell. These second messengers in turn, pass the signal on by altering the behavior of selected cellular proteins. One very widely used second messenger is Calcium, stimulated by a distinct G-protein connected pathway. Another widely used second messenger is Cyclic AMP.

When a hormone is the chemical that acts as a signal the response is via second messenger Cyclic AMP.
When G proteins receive a signal to connect to another crucial enzyme – phospholipase C, then it changes the concentration of calcium within the cell, which is a far more widely used second messenger than Cyclic AMP.

In the next article I will reveal how calcium signaling works or as relevant to Autism – does not work.

An expert on G-protein of the brain:
There are many scientists in the world who are working on the G protein. Do reach out to them and request them to speak on their work and explain their focus.
1) Dr Gunnar Schulte and colleagues
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
Email: gunnar.schulte@fyfa.ki.se

2) MARK M. RASENICK

Prof. Mark M. Rasenick

Professor

Physiology and Biophysics, and Psychiatry

Director, Biomedical Neuroscience Training Program, U. Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60612

Cytoskeletal modulation of neuronal signal transduction

http://www.uic.edu/depts/mcpb/pages/rasenick/rasenick.htm

Related Articles:
Know your G proteins
Studies linking obesity to Autism
Why is Autism observed in America and not in a developing country like Somalia
Autistic child and a multiple sclerosis parent – a connection?

I wish to thank two of my readers:

1)  Everysensory blogger for inspiring me to cover the “whole” picture when the media suddenly focussed on “obesity causes Autism”.

2)  Fitfoodhealthprogram blogger who inspired me to write more information filled articles related Autism.

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