Tag Archives: Immunity

Your immune system: a simple summary for the non-scientist


If you have ever wished you knew more about the immune system, this moderate sized article published in 2007 by the National Institute of Health (USA) is recommended reading. It explains very simply commonly used biological terms and supports them with beautiful illustrations. With so many immune diseases being discussed, it has become important for the non-scientist to become familiar with basic human biology. My personal favorite are two paragraphs on page 35 which says that your brain and health are connected. In addition, if you read the earlier page discussing what is the first line of “defense” inside your body, you might be fascinated by this machinery inside your own body which works like clockwork, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. It runs on a biological clock which controls when your body machinery “switches off” for “rest”.  I wonder if it should be required reading for all who wish to study “Organizational management”.  You may want to click here to read it.

If you enjoyed this article then you will also really enjoy my articles on your immune system. My suggestions are: “My immune system and my G-protein ” and “Role of your CD-14 gene in your food allergy“.

An excerpt from page 28 is below. If you are comfortable reading this excerpt, then you will enjoy the article:
Quote

Disorders of the Immune System

Allergic Diseases

The most common types of allergic diseases occur when the immune system responds to
a false alarm. In an allergic person, a normally harmless material such as grass pollen, food particles, mold, or house dust mites is mistaken for a threat and attacked.

Allergies such as pollen allergy are related
to the antibody known as IgE. Like other antibodies, each IgE antibody is specific; one acts against oak pollen and another against ragweed, for example.

Autoimmune Diseases

Sometimes the immune system’s recognition apparatus breaks down, and the body begins to manufacture T cells and antibodies directed against self antigens in its own cells and tissues. As a result, healthy cells and tissues …….

Unquote

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How your nails speak about your health


Learn what secrets your nails can reveal about your health. See a slideshow by clicking here on the WebMD site on “What Your Nails Say About Your Health”. It has 11 slides, each with a caption that explains very well what the slides say.

Common Nail Conditions by Healthy Living
knowabouthealth.com

Just like the skin, the nails can reveal a lot about your health. The researchers at National Institute of health, USA says that Kidney disease can cause a build-up of nitrogen waste products in the blood, which can damage nails. Liver disease can damage nails. Thyroid diseases such such as hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism may cause brittle nails or splitting of the nail bed from the nail plate (onycholysis). You may click here to learn more about the nail abnormalities that could indicate a concern:
Considerations
Causes
Poisons
Medications
Normal Aging
When to call your Doctor

Toe Nail Fungus:
Should you suspect that you have toe nail fungus? You might learn more from the following:

You may click on the following links on toe nail fungus by Mayo Clinic, in Rochester, Minnesota. Thousands of patients seek answers from their clinical experts who provide current medical information.
Definition
Symptoms
Causes
Risk Factors
Complications

If you have diabetes or a weakened immune system and suspect that you may have a nail disorder like a nail infection, do visit your doctor immediately. Diabetics have an impaired blood circulation and nerve supply to their feet. These might lead to additional complications which can be prevented with expert care. Do also keep in mind that brilliant scientists all over the world are working on amazing innovations to manage diabetes and artificially producing insulin. You may click here to read about one such innovation.

Related Articles: 

Too much calcium can break nails
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New York Scientists invent a novel way to remotely switch on an engineered gene to produce insulin..
Nails from Vanessa944Lammers

“>Slideshare on how to take proper care of your nails with photos

; ;

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The Gut Microbiota: your good germ friends to nurture to strengthen your immune system against “Allergy”


Your gut has both good microbes and sometimes, dangerous microbes. The trick is to know how to encourage the good microbes to grow inside your gut while creating a very difficult environment for the bad microbes inside your body. The good microbes codevelop inside your body since birth say a wonderful international group of physician and microbial scientists from five countries including Singapore, Sweden, USA, England and France. What germs your body can harbor depends firstly on your genes, and that means not everybody can tolerate all good microbes. Following your personal genes through your personal nutrition choices tailored to your specific lifestyle decides your microbiota. Believe it or not, your gut microbes control your brain, muscles, and your liver through your gut cells. Gives a whole new meaning to the term, “You are what you eat”. I would not add, “Your brain is what you eat”. These scientists strongly suggest that it is imperative to understand the individual gut microbiota, which means your good microbes, to get a better understanding of how to keep your brain and your muscles in peak performance by assisting your immune regulatory system. Apparently, your immune system is assisted by your good microbes. David Artis and his team at University of Pennsylvannia have become the leading scientists calling for an overhaul of the study of what is allergy and the immune system, based on gut microbiota research.

Have you ever wondered how that poor kid playing in the filth is healthier than your kid brought up in a sterilized home and school environment and playground? Well, the answer may lie in the good microbes that co-develop in the gut since birth. The articles below may be of interest to you. Your gut is “infested” fortunately by trillions of beneficial microbes that occupy their own favorite niches inside the intestine, as it folds its way inside your body. You might want to reconsider next time you have that antibiotic – it may indiscriminate and kill the bacteria that help you along with that single one that is harming you, currently. Have you ever wondered how some people are better able to “fight” off infection? They may actually have a stronger gut.  The term “my gut reaction” may not be that funny after all!

1)  Host-Gut Microbiota Metabolic Interactions
2) Crossover Immune Cells Blur the Boundaries
3) Innate Lymphoid Cells Promote Anatomical Containment of Lymphoid-Resident Commensal Bacteria
4) Immunology: Allergy challenged

1)  Host-Gut Microbiota Metabolic Interactions

Published Online June 6 2012
Science 8 June 2012:
Vol. 336 no. 6086 pp. 1262-1267
DOI: 10.1126/science.1223813
  • REVIEW

Host-Gut Microbiota Metabolic Interactions

  1. Jeremy K. Nicholson1,*,
  2. Elaine Holmes1,
  3. James Kinross1,
  4. Remy Burcelin2,
  5. Glenn Gibson3,
  6. Wei Jia4,
  7. Sven Pettersson5,*

+Author Affiliations


  1. 1Biomolecular Medicine, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ, UK.

  2. 2Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U1048, and Institut des Maladies Métaboliques et Cardiovasculaire I2MC, Rangueil Hospital, BP84225, 31432 Toulouse, France.

  3. 3Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, UK.

  4. 4Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA.

  5. 5Department of Microbiology, Tumor, and Cell Biology (MTC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 117 77, Sweden, and School of Biological Sciences and National Cancer Centre, 11 Hospital Drive, Singapore 169610.
  1. *To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: j.nicholson@imperial.ac.uk (J.K.N.);sven.pettersson@ki.se (S.P.)

ABSTRACT

The composition and activity of the gut microbiota codevelop with the host from birth and is subject to a complex interplay that depends on the host genome, nutrition, and life-style. The gut microbiota is involved in the regulation of multiple host metabolic pathways, giving rise to interactive host-microbiota metabolic, signaling, and immune-inflammatory axes that physiologically connect the gut, liver, muscle, and brain. A deeper understanding of these axes is a prerequisite for optimizing therapeutic strategies to manipulate the gut microbiota to combat disease and improve health.

 2) Crossover Immune Cells Blur the Boundaries

NEWS FOCUSIMMUNOLOGYCrossover Immune Cells Blur the Boundaries

  • Mitch Leslie

Science 8 June 2012: 1228-1229.

3)

Published Online June 6 2012
Science 8 June 2012:
Vol. 336 no. 6086 pp. 1321-1325
DOI: 10.1126/science.1222551
  • REPORT

Innate Lymphoid Cells Promote Anatomical Containment of Lymphoid-Resident Commensal Bacteria

  1. Gregory F. Sonnenberg1,
  2. Laurel A. Monticelli1,
  3. Theresa Alenghat1,
  4. Thomas C. Fung1,
  5. Natalie A. Hutnick2,
  6. Jun Kunisawa3,4,
  7. Naoko Shibata3,4,
  8. Stephanie Grunberg1,
  9. Rohini Sinha1,
  10. Adam M. Zahm5,
  11. Mélanie R. Tardif6,
  12. Taheri Sathaliyawala7,
  13. Masaru Kubota7,
  14. Donna L. Farber7,
  15. Ronald G. Collman8,
  16. Abraham Shaked9,
  17. Lynette A. Fouser10,
  18. David B. Weiner2,
  19. Philippe A. Tessier6,
  20. Joshua R. Friedman5,
  21. Hiroshi Kiyono3,4,11,
  22. Frederic D. Bushman1,
  23. Kyong-Mi Chang8,12,
  24. David Artis1,13,*

+Author Affiliations


  1. 1Department of Microbiology and Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

  2. 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

  3. 3Division of Mucosal Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.

  4. 4Department of Medical Genome Science, Graduate School of Frontier Science, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8562, Japan.

  5. 5Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

  6. 6Centre de Recherche en Infectiologie, Centre Hospitalier de l’Université Laval, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec, Canada.

  7. 7Department of Surgery and the Columbia Center for Translational Immunology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA.

  8. 8Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

  9. 9Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

  10. 10Inflammation and Immunology Research Unit, Biotherapeutics Research and Development, Pfizer Worldwide R&D, Cambridge, MA 02140, USA.

  11. 11Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 102-0075, Japan.

  12. 12Philadelphia VA Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

  13. 13Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
  1. *To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: dartis@mail.med.upenn.edu

ABSTRACT

The mammalian intestinal tract is colonized by trillions of beneficial commensal bacteria that are anatomically restricted to specific niches. However, the mechanisms that regulate anatomical containment remain unclear. Here, we show that interleukin-22 (IL-22)–producing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are present in intestinal tissues of healthy mammals. Depletion of ILCs resulted in peripheral dissemination of commensal bacteria and systemic inflammation, which was prevented by administration of IL-22. Disseminating bacteria were identified as Alcaligenes species originating from host lymphoid tissues. Alcaligenes was sufficient to promote systemic inflammation after ILC depletion in mice, and Alcaligenes-specific systemic immune responses were associated with Crohn’s disease and progressive hepatitis C virus infection in patients. Collectively, these data indicate that ILCs regulate selective containment of lymphoid-resident bacteria to prevent systemic inflammation associated with chronic diseases.

  • Received for publication 28 March 2012.
  • Accepted for publication 24 April 2012.

Immunology: Allergy challenged

Nature

 484,

458–459

(26 April 2012)

doi:10.1038/484458a

Published online

 25 April 2012

An article suggesting that allergic responses may not be an accident of an off-target immune system, but rather a deliberate defence against potential harm, provokes the question of whether our understanding of allergy needs an overhaul. Immunologists provide their opinions. See Perspective p.465

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Author information

Affiliations

  1. David Artis is in the Department of Microbiology and the Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

  2. Rick M. Maizels is at the Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK.

  3. Fred D. Finkelman is in the Department of Medicine, Cincinnati Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45220, USA, and in the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, and the Division of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to:

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When great scientists go unrecognized by the nobel prize: how should the public make up for that lapse?


Any body who has a family member suffering from an auto-immune disease realizes the importance of research in immune biology. Severe allergy, Multiple sclerosis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Crohn’s Disease, Lyme Disease, Osteoarthritis, and recently, Diabetes are a list of diseases that are related to a malfunction of the immune order in a body. The body begins to attack it’s own cells believing that it is a “foreign” cell or an invading organism that needs to be destroyed. The degeneration of parts of the body begins leading to specific disease. The New York Times covers the story of two scientists from two different countries who collaborated in the same lab to discover answers to the immune system. Read here to learn about: the seminal contributions of immunologists Charles A. Janeway Jr. (1943-2003) and Ruslan Medzhitov. Their work went unrecognized by the nobel committee. Now, you as the public must begin to award and recognize the scientists you value. Shower them with emails and let them know that you care about their research. Let them feel appreciated. Invite them for talks. Give them free dinners at talks – yes, scientists love that free cookie.

It is also well known that a strong immune system is capable of fighting disease. Monks from Tibet are being researched to teach the world how the mind can control the body’s immune system. A strong, happy person is invariab
ly a healthy person. A sad person, becomes depressed and begins to suffer from all kinds of ailments, many imagined and many real.

Biography:
Click here to read about Prof Charles Janeway. His immunology course at Yale was legendary. He created more immunologists like himself by inspiration.
Click here to read about Dr. Ruslan Medzhitov. He arrived from Russia to work with Dr Charles Janeway, to prove his theory about the two fold immune system.

Prof Charles Janeway

Prof Ruslan Medzhitov

The immune system is two fold: The biological clock of the body controls the innate immune system – just like plants, all humans, animals and birds are conditioned by nature to wake up with the sun, have light exposure of several hours and then off to sleep by sunset or dark. Flowers close, birds stop chirping, animals begin to snore, but humans? Night shift workers have higher rates of illnesses. Could it be a biological clock gone awry?
The innate immune system controls the adaptive immune system which controls how we respond to microbes and environmental insults. When the biological clock is off, the innate immune system is off and since it controls the adaptive immune system, the response to body insult is off. Any wonder why unhappy people or those who work irregular hours feel sicker?

Which scientists should the public honor and thank for researching the innate and adaptive immune system and the way they are connected? You must read the following
A revolutionary idea of how the immune system worked. In vertebrates, two immune systems protect against infection. There’s the evolutionarily older system that all organisms, even plants, have — the innate immune system. There is also another system that evolved relatively recently, the adaptive immune system, which only vertebrates have. Janeway proposed that the innate system detects invading microbes, distinguishes them from everything else and signals the adaptive immune system to move against the intruder.

the authors of the paper did not get a nobel prize and the scientific community is very upset. They felt that the discovery of the toll receptors was worth a nobel prize. Read the New York Times article, “A long journey to the immune system” here.

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Four facts about allergy: parents, children, patients, genes and researchers


One: Pediatrician Stephen Cowan says the gut and the brain are not two separate things but are interconnected.
(From Alison Rose Levy’s article in Huffington post in 2010
Quote:
There’s an experiment going on right now–but it isn’t being conducted by scientists. It’s being conducted by parents. In 30 million kitchens across the U.S. that experiment is called “What Can My Child Eat?” In families with children with autism and allergies, the result of that experiment can either be a day of relative calm and comfort, or it can produce anything from brain fog, digestive discomfort, and mood swings, to pain, seizures, skin outbreaks, and severe digestive distress.

While the debate continues as to whether or not laboratory scientists have successfully isolated a single one of the many factors that a growing numnber of doctors say may contribute to autism, families still have to cope and they still have to feed their children. …
Unquote). 

Two: Dr Harumi Jyonouchi, Pediatric Allergy/Immunology Clinic, reports in 2010 that food allergy is related to asthma, autism and ASD and prevalent in 30% of the population and rising.
quote:
…Abstract

IgE-mediated allergic diseases (e.g., allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, atopic asthma and food allergy) are prevalent (up to 30%) in the general population and are increasing in developed countries. In infants and young children, non-IgE-mediated food allergy is also prevalent. In addition to easily recognized organ-specific symptoms, allergic diseases can cause neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as irritability and hyperactivity, in otherwise healthy individuals. This is also likely to occur in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Moreover, the discomfort….
Unquote.

Three: Just because a food has been eaten in the past for over 2000 years does not mean it is good for you today; it should be better for you but no longer is. Why? Pediatrician Dr S. Lucarelli reported in 1995that ancient foods like milk and wheat may be toxic to the central nervous system.

Our Daily Bread

Quote:
Panminerva Med. 1995 Sep;37(3):137-41.
Food allergy and infantile autism.
Lucarelli S, Frediani T, Zingoni AM, Ferruzzi F, Giardini O, Quintieri F, Barbato M, D’Eufemia P, Cardi E.
Source
Department of Paediatrics, University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy.
Abstract
The etiopathogenesis of infantile autism is still unknown. Recently some authors have suggested that food peptides might be able to determine toxic effects at the level of the central nervous system by interacting with neurotransmitters. In fact a worsening of neurological symptoms has been reported in autistic patients after the consumption of milk and wheat. The aim of the present study has been to verify the efficacy of a cow’s milk free diet (or other foods which gave a positive result after a skin test) in 36 autistic patients. We also looked for immunological signs of food allergy in autistic patients on a free choice diet. We noticed a marked improvement in the behavioural symptoms of patients after a period of 8 weeks on an elimination diet and we found high levels of IgA antigen specific antibodies for casein, lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin and IgG and IgM for casein. The levels of these antibodies were significantly higher than those of a control group which consisted of 20 healthy children. Our results lead us to hypothesise a relationship between food allergy and infantile autism as has already been suggested for other disturbances of the central nervous system.
PMID: 8869369 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
MeSH Terms, Substan
Unquote.

Four: The CD 14 gene for food allergy has been taken to new heights by Dr S. Goyert, promising real answers for many allergic patients.

Related Article
How to add Calcium in the diets of Allergic and Autistic kids?
G-proteins and their relationship to Autism, Allergy, Aspergers.

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