Monthly Archives: October 2012

Creation of an artificial muscle that responds to artificial protein by UC Santa Barbara scientists


We have only begun to understand a biological motor. Cells are composed of biological filament system called the cytoskeleton, which very much resembles the bricks used to build a brick and mortar house. These tiny marvels are precise machines that run all the functions of a living being with a regular daily rythm, day after day, 24 hours a day. It runs on energy called ATP. That is very much like how electricity runs the house lights or a gallon of gas runs a car motor, in the same way, a living cell, be it a plant or animal requires energy in the form of ATP to run it’s “motor”. Scientists have often wished to harness this cellular energy. The health beneficial opportunities and fortunes to be made for the medical device manufacturers are only limited by imagination.

Discovery: Activating a Biological structure using a motor created with bacterial protein

On May 2012, a team of enthusiastic scientists at the University of California Santa Barbara have perfected a nano machine that runs on cellular ATP, well in a minute way. Olivier J. N. Bertranda, Deborah Kuchnir Fygensonb, and Omar A. Salehc, have demonstrated that they can trigger an artificial gel structure created with DNA building blocks that will respond to ATP and twitch. I hope I have access to a video soon to show it to you in action. For now, read more on:
1) Click “Scientists Build ‘Mechanically Active’ DNA Material That Responds With Movement When Stimulated“- if you want the Science Daily version;
2) Click “Active, motor-driven mechanics in a DNA gel” – if you want the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences dated Oct 8, 2012 version.

Did you find this research of value? Then do write to the team of scientists and congratulate them for their superb curiosity and ability to follow through and capture a vision of our future. Send them money too if it makes you happy. Your correspondence should be addressed as follows:
E-mail: saleh@engineering.ucsb.edu.

Here is a quote from their article:

Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of an active gel using noncytoskeletal components. We use methods of base-pair-templated DNA self assembly to create a hybrid DNA gel containing stiff tubes and flexible linkers. We then activate the gel by adding the motor FtsK50C, a construct derived from the bacterial protein FtsK that, in vitro, has a strong and processive DNA contraction activity.

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Your immune system: a simple summary for the non-scientist


If you have ever wished you knew more about the immune system, this moderate sized article published in 2007 by the National Institute of Health (USA) is recommended reading. It explains very simply commonly used biological terms and supports them with beautiful illustrations. With so many immune diseases being discussed, it has become important for the non-scientist to become familiar with basic human biology. My personal favorite are two paragraphs on page 35 which says that your brain and health are connected. In addition, if you read the earlier page discussing what is the first line of “defense” inside your body, you might be fascinated by this machinery inside your own body which works like clockwork, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. It runs on a biological clock which controls when your body machinery “switches off” for “rest”.  I wonder if it should be required reading for all who wish to study “Organizational management”.  You may want to click here to read it.

If you enjoyed this article then you will also really enjoy my articles on your immune system. My suggestions are: “My immune system and my G-protein ” and “Role of your CD-14 gene in your food allergy“.

An excerpt from page 28 is below. If you are comfortable reading this excerpt, then you will enjoy the article:
Quote

Disorders of the Immune System

Allergic Diseases

The most common types of allergic diseases occur when the immune system responds to
a false alarm. In an allergic person, a normally harmless material such as grass pollen, food particles, mold, or house dust mites is mistaken for a threat and attacked.

Allergies such as pollen allergy are related
to the antibody known as IgE. Like other antibodies, each IgE antibody is specific; one acts against oak pollen and another against ragweed, for example.

Autoimmune Diseases

Sometimes the immune system’s recognition apparatus breaks down, and the body begins to manufacture T cells and antibodies directed against self antigens in its own cells and tissues. As a result, healthy cells and tissues …….

Unquote

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2012 NAIAD Report on Status of Vaccine Research and Development


THE JORDAN REPORT, periodically reviews the progress in vaccine development and is published by NAIAD (USA). In recent years, there has been a growing, negative opinion towards vaccination. However, when one looks back 30 years one finds that life expentancy of the human being has been extended far more in the last century than in the several preceding thousands of years of human existence.

In 1981, the program of Accelerated Development of Vaccines was established by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) to build on the success of the past triumphs against important infectious diseases as diphtheria, measles, pertussis, poliomyelitis, tetanus, yellow fever, and others. In 1961, it was not unusual to see children crippled by polio. Today, that is rare. Clearly, vaccinations have contributed to a society which is healthier and preserves human life.  The new program was ably directed for 6 critical early years by William S. (Bill) Jordan (1917–2008). Hence, the periodical reviews are named after him. You may click here to read the 2012 review. It takes time to load, since it is large, and you may want to allow time for that.

Addressing Adverse Effect Concerns: Parents claim that their child showed the first signs of autism after a series of childhood vaccinations. While vaccine researchers do not find clinical support for this statement, they have removed mercury from their vaccines and also have preservative-free vaccines. The search for the causal factors for Autism Spectrum Disorder is ongoing.How is a decision maker to move forward facing such challenges?

Contents of the 2012 Jordan Report: 

Below is the Table of Contents covered in the 2012 Jordan Review. You may find a vaccine within your interests. To read more about each vaccine study, you will want to click here. Of particular interest to a worldwide audience might be Malaria, West Nile Virus, Chlamydia, Neglected tropical diseases like viral Dengue and a new emerging viral disease like Chikungunya.

Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION
Foreword by Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. ………………………………….. 3 Tribute by Carole A. Heilman, Ph.D. ………………………………….. 5
EXPERT ARTICLES
Vaccinomics and Personalized Vaccinology
Gregory A. Poland, M.D., Inna G. Ovsyannikova, Ph.D. and Robert M. Jacobson, M.D. …………………………………………………….11
Sex Differences in Immune Responses to Vaccines
Col. Renata J. M. Engler, M.D. and Mary M. Klote, M.D. ……. 19 Immunization and Pregnancy
Flor M. Munoz, M.D. ………………………………………………………… 27
Second-Generation Malaria Vaccines: A Definitive End
to Malaria-Related Deaths?
Vasee S. Moorthy, MRCP, Ph.D. ………………………………………….. 34
Structural Biology and Other Resolution-Enhancing Technologies in the Design of an Effective HIV–1 Vaccine Peter D. Kwong, Ph.D., John R. Mascola, M.D. and
Gary J. Nabel, M.D., Ph.D. ………………………………………………….. 40
New Methods for Analyzing Vaccine Responses
Mark M. Davis, Ph.D. and John D. Altman, Ph.D……………….. 46
Developing Vaccines for the Neglected Tropical Diseases
David J. Diemert, M.D., FRCP(C) and
Saman Moazami, B.A…………………………………………………………. 53
The Public Health Need for a Staphylococcus aureus Vaccine Scott K. Fridkin, M.D. and John A. Jernigan, M.D., M.S. …….. 66
Adjuvants—Past, Present, and Future
Nicholas I. Obiri, Ph.D. and
Nathalie Garçon, Pharm.D., Ph.D. ……………………………………….74
Progress, Promises, and Perceptions: The National Vaccine Plan—A Path Forward for the Coming Decade
Bruce G. Gellin, M.D., M.P.H. and Sarah R. Landry, M.A…… 85
VACCINE UPDATES
Dengue
M. Cristina Cassetti, Ph.D. …………………………………………………. 95
HIGHLIGHT BOX
Vaccine Against Chikungunya Virus in Development
Gary J. Nabel, M.D., Ph.D. and Ken Pekoc ……………………. 97
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
Frederick J. Cassels, Ph.D. …………………………………………………… 98
HIGHLIGHT BOX
Vaccine Delivery Technologies
Martin H. Crumrine, Ph.D………………………………………….. 105 West Nile Virus
Patricia M. Repik, Ph.D…………………………………………………….. 106
HIGHLIGHT BOX
Henipaviruses (Nipah Virus and Hendra Virus)
M. Cristina Cassetti, Ph.D…………………………………………… 109
Group B Streptococcus
Xin-Xing Gu, M.D., Linda C. Lambert, Ph.D. and
Carol Baker, M.D………………………………………………………………..110
HIGHLIGHT BOX
CMV Vaccine Shows Promise
Walla Dempsey, Ph.D., M. Cristina Cassetti, Ph.D.
and Mason Booth………………………………………………………….114
HIV/AIDS
Rona L. Siskind, M.H.S……………………………………………………….115
HIGHLIGHT BOXES
Herpevac Trial for Women Concludes
Amanda Schleif, M.P.H……………………………………………….. 120
Chlamydia Vaccine Being Tested in
Nonhuman Primates
Harlan D. Caldwell, Ph.D. and Ken Pekoc …………………… 122
Promising HIV Vaccine Trial Results: RV144,
the Thai HIV Vaccine Trial
Rona L. Siskind, M.H.S. ………………………………………………. 126
1
Influenza
Linda C. Lambert, Ph.D. and Frederick J. Cassels, Ph.D. …… 127
HIGHLIGHT BOX
NIAID Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research
and Surveillance
Sarah E. Miers, J.D………………………………………………………. 132
Malaria
Peter D. Crompton, M.D., M.P.H. and Steven R. Rosenthal, M.D., M.P.H. …………………………………………………………………….. 133
HIGHLIGHT BOX
The International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research
Malla R. Rao, Dr.P.H., M.Eng. …………………………………….. 134
Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Sonnie Kim, M.S. ………………………………………………………………. 139
HIGHLIGHT BOX
Impact of Regulatory Science on Influenza
Vaccine Development
David S. Cho, Ph.D., M.P.H…………………………………………. 139
Tuberculosis
Christine F. Sizemore, Ph.D. ……………………………………………… 144
HIGHLIGHT BOX
Hepatitis C Virus: Prospects for Vaccine Development
Sarah E. Miers, J.D. and Rajen Koshy, Ph.D. ……………….. 147 Rotavirus
Diana S. Berard ………………………………………………………………… 149 APPENDIXES
Appendix A: Status of Vaccine Research and
Development, 2012……………………………………………………………. 153
Appendix B: NIAID-Supported HIV Vaccine Candidates in Preclinical Development…………………………………………………… 179
Appendix C: Ongoing Clinical Trials of HIV Vaccine Candidates in HIV-Uninfected Adults……………………………… 180

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All drugs from the compounding pharmacy of Massachussetts should be monitored


In additiion, to monitoring patients who received a corticosteroid injection for pain, the FDA (USA) has advised to monitor any drug from the compounding pharmacy facility at Farmington, MA. Patients following eye surgery and heart operations have complained of meningitis symptoms and they received drugs from this pharmacy. There is the chance that their symptoms or complaints are from other causes.

The meningitis is caused by a rare fungus, Exserohilum, which normally causes infection in plants and if it infects humans it is usually in the harmless form of sinusitis. Thus, a question that is going to be a follow – up study is how did this fungus turn deadly to humans? Currently, the 15 scientists at CDC (USA) are working around the clock to figure out how to definitively diagnose this fungus in a human. Considering this is the first time observed to be causing meningitis in humans, there is no FDA approved diagnostic test.

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Two Traditional Plant-based Diabetic management from Africa, and India


Psidium and Perseaare two common plants used in effective health management for optimum results that often integrate traditional medicine with modern therapies.

Psidium guajava, is used in India from traditional times to manage diabetes (see 1).  This common red guava has been shown to have hypoglycemic (lowers blood sugar) and hypotensive (lowers blood pressure) activity (see 2) when a research study was conducted using leaf extracts in an African adults type 2 Diabetics group. Mechanism of this action is still speculative. Both stem bark and leaf extracts appear to have hypoglycemic (lower blood sugar) effects.

Persea americana, has been used in traditional medicine for its hypoglycemic (sugar lowering) effects (see 3). This plant, the common pear’s seed extracts were used to study diabetic induced rats (see 3).  It acts by a degenerative effects on the pancreatic islet cells. Thus, the author suggests that ethanolic extracts of the pear seeds may be used to reduce blood glucose levels and in diabetic management.

Do write to these researchers to encourage them on these research projects on type 2 diabetes:
Dr Ojewole Email: ojewolej@ukzn.ac.za ; Based currently in Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
Dr Edem Email: doedem@yahoo.com , Based at Department of Biochemistry,Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences University of UYO,P.M.B. 1017, UYO,Akwa Ibom State,Nigeria

Related Articles

1.  Stem barks of the common Red guava may have hypoglycemic effects.

2. Hypoglycemic and Hypotensive (lower blood pressure) effects of the leaf extracts of the common red guava.

3. Hypoglycemic effects of the seed extracts of the Pear seed.

4. War on Obesity and Diabetes by reducing the size of 16oz drinks in New York city

5. New York scientists engineer a unique way to switch on the insulin gene from a distance – with impact on diabetics managament

6. Could anti-CD20 cure Type 2 Diabetes?

7. Diabetes is an auto-immune disease
 

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The Red pea pod fungus that became a deadly meningitis causal agent


As the 15 fungal scientists at the Centers of Disease Control (CDC) work thirteen hours a day, seven days a week (see 1) on how to detect, understand and curtail this unusual meningitis, the larger community is wondering what could have prevented this meningitis. There are two fungi causing this recent deadly meningitis (see 2, 3, 4.). They are Aspergillus and Exserohilum. While Aspergillus has caused meningitis in the past, Exserohilum is the surprising enemy. While there are a few scientists already working on fungal meningitis (see 3, 5), there are none who had worked on Exserohilum for meningitis, but perhaps as a sinusitis causal agent or a plant pathogen. 

The current emphasis of the scientists working around the clock is to figure out how to detect the fungus that is causing the meningitis.  Since one of them has never caused meningitis before, there are no confirmed, FDA approved detection tests for the current crisis. This is one of the topmost and most urgent priorities of the CDC scientists. “The scale is much bigger than we have previously worked with”, says Dr. Ana Lituintseva, CDC Fungal Research Laboratory Team Leader (see 6). While most patients have been reported from among those who received spinal pain corticosteroid injections, there has been at least one report of meningitis from a patient who received a joint pain corticosteroid injection (see 2). Fortunately, this fungal infection is not contagious. Fungal medication is very toxic. It is not recommended to take the fungal medication as a precautionary measure, because fungi and humans are very similar. When you attempt to kill the fungus, you may harm the human. So, the advice is to listen to the doctor. In a following article we will explain how fungi are similar to humans.

The Red Pea Pod Fungus that causes an unusual meningitis

Why is one of the fungi causing this infection called “The Red pea pod”? Because it looks like a red pea pod. For a photo of what it looks like when it was observed causing an infection in plants click on 4; compare with this  photo (see 6) of what it looks like when it causes infection in humans as meningitis. Then, decide for yourself and begin to ask the question, how different are we humans from the common plants around us? The answer is important for the survival of our civilization as we know it today and begin to create an alternate civilization in space, Mars and the universe beyond us.

Related Articles
1. At CDC, scientists fight to halt a deadly fungus .
2.Fungal meningitis stats continue to rise.
3. What are the two fungi causing the meningitis outbreak in USA?
4. Exserohilum and Aspergillus: what turned them deadly?
5. Advances against Aspergillosus
6. CDC says one new death from meningitis

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What is the G-Protein receptor for which two scientists won the nobel prize?


What is the G-protein? They act as a gateway to how and what our bodies react. For example, Vitamin D exposure is critical to our health. How does our body know how much Vitamin D we have been exposed to? The answer is that there is a protein that recognizes Vitamin D when it is produced in response to sunlight. This protein is connected via another protein called G-protein. Through G-proteins, the human body controls virtually any important functions like fighting the common cold.  To learn more about how G-proteins control emerging diseases like autism and their description click here.  To see a gorgeous illustration of the G-protein click here. To know the names of the nobel winners click here.

You may want to know your G-proteins. A change in your G-protein may affect how much sunlight you need to be a healthy person. This may be quite different from that of your neighbor or best friend or spouse. Pharmaceutical companies owe half their drugs to the G-proteins. Antihistamines, beta blockers and anti-psychotic drugs to name just a few block buster drugs owe their success to the understanding scientists have of the G-proteins.

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Aspergillus and Exserohilum: what turned them deadly?


The recent outbreak of Meningitis (July – October 2012) has been deadly. Of the approximately 13000 individuals exposed to tainted steroid back pain injection (click here for details) 18 had died until October 8, 2012. Fortunately, the average healthy individual is able to fight off the causal agents of this outbreak – two fungi. Well, lets get to know these fungi better.  The two fungi are Aspergillus and Exserohilum.  Here, we cover Exserohilum.

Exserohilum
First described by Leonard and Suggs and subsequently reviewed by Sivanesan (see 11)

Exserohilum rostratum conidiophores
Fungal colonies are grey to blackish – brown
Source: Mycology, Adelaide University

Exserohilum sp. conidia
Note the strongly defined protruding truncate “exserted” hilum
Hilum is defined as the scar on the conidia at the point of attachment to conidiophore
Source: Mycology, Adelaide University

More commonly known as an invader of grasses (see 1;2), Exserohilum has rarely caused a disease in humans. While meningitis is known to have a fungal causal agent (see 5), it has never been by the genus Exserohilum (see 7,8). It is an emerging human pathogen and needs to be better understood (8). This genus while found to cause leaf spots and leaf stripes on certain plants (see 10), does not even invade healthy grasses, let alone healthy humans. Sivanesan described 20 species of Exserohilum in 1987 and is the established published source (see 11) on the illustrated biology, pathogenicity, toxin production and distribution of Exserohilum. Robert Leahy has added information on Exserohilum sp. leaf spots of Bromeliads (see 2). Bromeliads in their natural setting are fungus free. Since Bromeliads became increasingly desirable they are now cultivated under conditions where they are susceptible to destructive leaf streaks by this fungus. Hence, the study on how to recognize the symptoms and control them.

What turned the fungus deadly?

Very few scientists study human diseases caused by Exserohilum simply because they are so rare. They do cause  sinusitis (see 9). It has never been located in meningitis disease samples to date (see 8). Meningitis causing fungi are more commonly Aspergillus, Cryptoccocus and Candida (see 5), and Prof Robert Cramer’s laboratory is among the few who are studying the destructive process of human invasion by Aspergillus(see 5).

Certain types of Exserohilum are known to produce toxins, which could perhaps weaken or destroy/kill a weakened host like a plant or a human. A list of some of the toxins it produces are: Glyceolin, Cynodontin, Exserohilone, Monocerin, Monocerin, Ophiobolin A, and Ravenelin (see 10). The first two are produced by E. rostratum, the most commonly studied.

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What are the fungi that are causing the meningitis outbreak in USA?


Aspergillus fumigatus

75 clinics in 23 states in USA are monitoring their patients who received a spinal steroid injection for pain. They may be infected with a rare meningitis caused by a fungus. The name of the steroid is methylprednisolone acetate. The Calgary Herald’s Malcolm Ritter  discusses the fact that there were (on October 8, 2012), at least two fungi linked to this unusual meningitis outbreak and they are Aspergillus and Exserohilum. Therapy is limited by the fact that very few anti-fungals penetrate the blood-brain barrier and researchers are working on more effective antifungals (see scientists below).

The causal fungi were contaminating the vials of the steroid produced and packed only by the New England Compounding Center in Massachussetts. Dr.John Jernigan, an epideomologist at the CDC, is leading the charge against these fungi. He has been quoted by various news sources stressing the fact that unlike bacterial meningitis, this is a very rare type of meningitis with little clinical research (PBS – a video recording, NY Times, Wall Street Journal). According to Huffington Post’s Amanda Chen, patients in Tennessee, Indiana, Florida, North Carolina, Maryland and Virginia have developed Meningitis. Dr. William Schaffner, President of the National Foundation of Infectious Disease said that the causal fungus is commonly found all around us, normally does not make people sick, but does cause an illness in some immunocompromised people like those with AIDS, and is not contagious.

Meningitis may be caused by fungi, bacteria or virus. To get this disease from a tainted vial is highly unusual. Needless to say, this steroid has been recalled immediately. By October 7, 2012 there were 18 confirmed deaths from fungal meningitis linked to tainted steroid back pain spinal injections says the local Detroit CBS news. Only those patients who sought relief for back pain with a steroid spinal injection July to September 2012 should be concerned.  Senator Richard Blumenthal has called for extending the FDA’s monitoring authority, if necessary (Wall Street Journal)

FUNGAL MENINGITIS
The Centers For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) USA, assures that fungal meningitis is not contagious. You may click here to reach the CDC site to learn about typical Fungal Meningitis. It talks about:
CAUSES
TRANSMISSION
RISK FACTORS –
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
RISK FACTORS
DIAGNOSIS
TREATMENT – usually IV medication and usually patients are immunocompromised already.

WHAT IS MENINGITIS?
The Tennessean has done such a wonderful job explaining this disease that you should probably click here to learn more about their explanations on:
What is meningitis and how many types are there?
What is Aspergillus Meningitis?
How is it diagnosed?
Should I go to the doctor for Aspergillus Meningitis?
Should I pursue other pain management options until this has been cleared?

THE DEDICATED SCIENTISTS WHO RESEARCH FUNGI THAT CAUSE MENINGITIS 
Do email these scientists and encourage them to continue their research. Send them dolloar bills if you must, but mostly tell them you appreciate their contribution.
ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS – involved in the tainted steroid outbreak

CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS – not involved in this 2012 outbreak

EXSEROHILUM – involved in the tainted steroid outbreak (Old research click on 1 & 2; and 3 for Six newer citations)

Associate Professor William Steinbach
The source of the featured photo in this article

The Duke University’s mycology group studies several fungi that cause diseases of humans including Aspergillus. One of their researchers in the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases is Associate Professor William Steinbach. He is interested specifically in Aspergillus fumigatus because it is the leading killer of immunocompromised patients with cancer or following transplantation. You may write to him at: 427 Jones Bldg
Research Drive, Durham, N.C. 27710 or email him at bill.steinbach@duke.edu.

Texas A&M University has biologists who have recently discovered that ZOLOFT, a medication already FDA approved for and most commonly prescribed for depression, and can cross the blood-brain barrier, can pack quite the punch against Cryptococcus neoformans, a fungus that may cause meningitis. The two chief scientists who are working to discover anti-fungals against C. neoformans are Professor Mathew Sachs and Assistant Professor Xiaorong Lin and published in the July 2012 issue of the Journal of Antimicrobial agents and Chemotherapy, where they discuss how there are a limited number of anti-fungals today. Also, the fact that antifungals available today do not penetrate the blood-brain barrier thus complicating anti-fungal therapy. Their research so far is only in the lab but is promising. Sertraline or ZOLOFT acs by not allowing the fungi to synthesize proteins for their own use, thus destroying them. Address correspondence to Xiaorong Lin, xlin@bio.tamu.edu, or Matthew S. Sachs, msachs@bio.tamu.edu or you may write at Department of Biology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA.

Professor Mathew Sachs

Assistant Professor Xiarong Lin

A meningitis causing fungus, Cryptococcus

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How your nails speak about your health


Learn what secrets your nails can reveal about your health. See a slideshow by clicking here on the WebMD site on “What Your Nails Say About Your Health”. It has 11 slides, each with a caption that explains very well what the slides say.

Common Nail Conditions by Healthy Living
knowabouthealth.com

Just like the skin, the nails can reveal a lot about your health. The researchers at National Institute of health, USA says that Kidney disease can cause a build-up of nitrogen waste products in the blood, which can damage nails. Liver disease can damage nails. Thyroid diseases such such as hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism may cause brittle nails or splitting of the nail bed from the nail plate (onycholysis). You may click here to learn more about the nail abnormalities that could indicate a concern:
Considerations
Causes
Poisons
Medications
Normal Aging
When to call your Doctor

Toe Nail Fungus:
Should you suspect that you have toe nail fungus? You might learn more from the following:

You may click on the following links on toe nail fungus by Mayo Clinic, in Rochester, Minnesota. Thousands of patients seek answers from their clinical experts who provide current medical information.
Definition
Symptoms
Causes
Risk Factors
Complications

If you have diabetes or a weakened immune system and suspect that you may have a nail disorder like a nail infection, do visit your doctor immediately. Diabetics have an impaired blood circulation and nerve supply to their feet. These might lead to additional complications which can be prevented with expert care. Do also keep in mind that brilliant scientists all over the world are working on amazing innovations to manage diabetes and artificially producing insulin. You may click here to read about one such innovation.

Related Articles: 

Too much calcium can break nails
Should we risk taking calcium supplementation with the risk of heart attack, bones breaking and ..
New York Scientists invent a novel way to remotely switch on an engineered gene to produce insulin..
Nails from Vanessa944Lammers

“>Slideshare on how to take proper care of your nails with photos

; ;

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