Monthly Archives: March 2012

National TV news PBS asks two prominent scientists: Why is Autism rising?


PBS Newshour brought two scientific Autism experts today, March 29, 2012, to discuss the “Rise of Autism” issue.
You can view this PBS Newshour discussion on Autism by clicking here.  The announcement today by CDC was that genes are not the only cause of Autism but unknown other factors cause susceptible genes to express Autism Spectrum of disorders.

Expert Scientific Speakers: One was the CDC Director Dr. Thomas Frieden, Atlanta, USA who discussed the SEED multi – year CDC project to identify issues other than genetics that might correlate with genetic susceptibility genes to cause Autism. The other a Pediatrician, Dr. Susan Hyman, from Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, USA who discussed the importance of objective criteria to diagnose the Autism spectrum of disorders, and the imperative need to have early diagnosis. Both agreed that the Pediatricians must be required to request for testing the children around 24 months of age to allow diagnosis to begin by 4 years of age. Concern was expressed for the highest functioning children in the spectrum, whose diagnosis and hence therapy might be delayed.

Videos on Autism PBS series The PBS blog “The Rundown” writes about the show covered today: The analysis comes from records of medical and school records of more than 330,000 eight-year-olds living in 14 states…. To read the article in “The Rundown” please click here. It includes the six “Autism Now” broadcast series videos. Each one is worth seeing. Especially the first one, broadcast last year, where renowned journalist, Robert MacNeil shows us visually his grandson’s inability to communicate with him.

Good News: More boys than girls are affected. Boys have the single Y chromosome. Girls have two X chromosomes. The two X chromosomes are in some way protecting girls from the family’s susceptibility genes to autism when exposed to the same causal factors. What are the causes? The good news is that the CDC has now acknowledged that genetics alone does not cause autism and has begun to ask what else may be contributing to the continual rise of Autism.

Related Articles on Autism:
1) Why is Autism observed in America and not in underdeveloped countries?
2) Autism in child & Multiple Sclerosis in parent: A pattern emerging?
3) Multiple sclerosis cured by hook worms?
You may also enjoy reading:
4) Preparing the college Professor for the child with Autism.
5) Why you should choose a pecan pie free of corn syrup this Thanksgiving.

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Autistic child or severely Allergic child with Multiple Sclerosis parent


You are not alone if you are in a family with a child diagnosed with an Autistic/ Allergic disorder and an adult diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis. What has disrupted the lifestyles espoused by the developed world? It is plain to see that our children are far weaker and have severe allergies to food items that our ancestors have eaten for generations and even their grandparents can tolerate well in their old age!

Genetics
The genetic link is suspected to be an autoimmune genes. Yet, inspite of large, genome studies there is no single gene or a group of genes that appear to be common factors. There are several large regions on the chromosomes that share common characteristics among patients with Autism, Aspergers, Multiple Sclerosis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Crohn’s disease and Autoimmune diseases. The immune genes appear to play a role but no particular set of immune genes stand out. Obviously, genes alone are not responsible for these disorders. 

The dedicated researchers in this field continue to perservere since it is obvious there is a shared set of factors triggering such disorders in a single family. Do contact the researchers and encourage them. These men and women are working long hours to discover these common triggers. Invite them to your support groups and inspire them. Shower them with accolades and let these men and women researchers know that they are our modern “Knights in shining armor”.

Scholarly Publications
Here are three scholarly, peer-reviewed articles discussing their research on the subject:
1) One:
2) Two:
3) Three:

One is by Dr Joseph Piven and colleagues, giving their expert psychiatric analysis of such families and concluding that there is a higher incidence of communication and behavioral deficits in the relatives. Families with Autism were compared with families with Down Syndrome and his conclusion was found only in families with Autism.
His contact information:
Dr. Piven, 1875 John Pappajohn Pavilion, Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA 52242-1057; jpiven@blue.weeg. uiowa.edu (e-mail).

Two is by a team of Psychiatrists and a Pediatrician from Medical Schools in Indiana. Their team studied about 300 families and concluded that autoimmune diseases like rheumatic fever was far more common in parents of children with Autism, Aspergers, ADHD, and such disorders than in parents of children not showing such disorders. They see an immune and autoimmune connection in families with Autistic disorders. They found this finding “unanticipated” and illuminating. In addition, they found this connection was not as strong in patients with PDD NOS and far stronger in patients with Autism and Aspergers. Interesting, right?

They hypothesize a mother to son transmission factor. They conclude this from a particularly important observation that there is a numerical increase in autoimmune diseases in grandmothers and uncles, as well as mothers and brothers of PDD patients. Normally, less men and more women present with autoimmune disorders. Yet, Autism and Aspergers are largely diagnosed in boys.

Contact information:
Thayne L. Sweeten, PhD*, Suzanne L. Bowyer, MD‡, David J. Posey, MD*, Gary M. Halberstadt, DO§, Christopher J. McDougle, MD*
*Departments of Psychiatry
‡Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, and James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children Indianapolis, Indiana
§St Vincent Hospital, Indianapolis, Indiana

Three is by The researchers studied the rates of Autoimmune diseases in parents of 111 infant Autistic patients and naturally, there were more boy patients (82) than girl patients (29). They observed a higher incidence of ulcerative collitis in mothers and Type 1 diabetes in fathers of infant Autism patients in comparison of parents of 330 normal children. The results were published in 2007 in the peer-reviewed journal Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology.

Contact information:
Mouridsen, S. E., Rich, B., Isager, T. and Nedergaard, N. J.
* Correspondence to first author at Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. E-mail: sem01@bbh.hosp.dk
1 Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Denmark
2 Terrasserne 105, Roskilde, Denmark
3 Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Glostrup University Hospital, Denmark
4 Psychiatric Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark

The scientific authors of these scientific publications on Autism disorders are observing with tempered frustration how uneducated the larger population is of this rising epidemic. They request that you allow for a 30% error in their observations. This error percentage is far higher in experiments allowing for human error. That is because people in general are unaware of the terms and symptoms of this rising epidemic until it hits one dear to them. Your role is to educate the public. Then the researchers in this field will find it easier to get results less prone to “uneducated responses” from their researched families “untouched” by Autoimmune disorders. This societal shift in autoimmune diseases in more boys vs girls and women is what the researchers are following. The numbers of Autistic and Asperger boys are rising each year. They will grow up and outlive their parents, many of whom are suffering from Multiple Sclerosis. Society faces a future it has no previous comprehension of.

Photo credit here.

Related articles:

1) Preparing College Professors for Autistic or Aspergers students
2) Curing Multiple Sclerosis with hook worms
3) Why do Somali children present with Autism in USA and not in Somalia?
4) Why choose a Pecan pie free of corn syrup?
5) Recent advances in Tourettes syndrome treatment

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Preparing college Professors for a student with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, Aspergers and other Autoimmune Diseases


I met a 19 year old girl who is recovering from Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, which she was diagnosed with at the age of 11 years when she was wheel chair bound, crippled with pain. A drug from a Pharmaceutical company, took her out of the wheel chair and made her feel well enough to participate in school academics. She even participitated in a bit part in a movie filmed locally. Then, the drug that made her walk again gave her a severe side reaction of breast cancer. Part of her breast had to be removed to save her. She recovered in time to graduate from high school and to apply and be accepted in a major, east coast college in USA. She decided she had enjoyed acting in that bit movie and so that should be her career choice.

Child in wheelchair from JRA

Nobody had prepared the college Professors for a student who had recovered both from Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis and from resultant breast cancer. Apparently, several students in her local school had Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, Autism, Leukemia and the school was well-equipped to service the unusual demand for wheelchairs and special communication disabilities.

However, not so in the college. The Professors were ill-prepared for her frequent need to take breaks to take doctor visits. In fact, one night when she was writhing in pain, her roommate had to take her to the hospital in the city and out of kindness the roommate stayed there all night and all of next day to give her company. When the Professors asked her why she had missed her classes, they did not believe the roommate and reprimanded her by lowering her grades, discouraging her from ever helping a friend in need. Apparently, colleges Professors are not supposed to teach you about helping a friend in need. Also, the Professors had never known that an autoimmune disease may require frequent doctor visits. They had no intention of giving any slack to the patient either. She had to transfer from that department to another which agreed to work with her requirement for flexibility. Apparently, acting classes could not be flexible and so she was given credit for only a single class that semester and not all of her classes. She had completed attendance almost until the end of the semester when she had become ill. She was very saddened by the lack of comprehension of the learned Professors that they were in a society where autoimmune diseases was on the rise.  

She informed me that her mother’s brother had multiple sclerosis. Her little sister, only 11 had recently been diagnosed with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis and that her 17 year old brother had recently begun to complain about very painful knees and that her healthy mother looked sickly. Another 8 year old brother was not complaining of anything. Would college be ready for the members of her family and the large number of her school mates arriving with various stages of different autoimmune diseases? This would probably be the first generation arriving in college with large numbers of advanced autoimmune diseases. Should the college communities begin to prepare? Should Professors begin to make special concessions instead of punitive grade damages to students who have to make frequent health absences? What kind of symptoms should Professors be expected to be aware of? Most Professors are from the generation when autoimmune diseases were practically not observed among the young. This is a new epidemic.  

Personal blogs of College students with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
1) “My Rheumatoid Arthritis Journey” by Jill Tague; diagnosed at 13 months
2) “Rheumatoid Arthritis Warrior” – lists personal stories from several patients – Read Dana’s story beginning at age of 19 years.
3) “Margo’s inspiring story” – A video of another persistent JRA patient which inspired the blogger

Peer-reviewed Publication of families with Autoimmune Diseases: Have you ever wondered why some families have both an autistic child and a parent with multiple sclerosis? The answer to your question may be from research by Doctors from the Departments of Psychiatry and Pediatrics in Indiana, who published their observation in the journal Pediatrics in 2003 which you can read here. They found that there is an increased frequency of an immune disorder in some family members of autism disorder children. There may not necessarily be another family member with autism but with a variety of other autoimmune diseases. Such families show increased frequency of autoimmune genes, especially inflammatory processes and cell-mediated immunity. Mothers of autistic children especially have a higher frequency of an autoimmune disease. Naturally, research is being pursued in the role of immunological processes in the development of autistic disorders. Rheumatic fever and Rheumatoid arthritis was frequently found in the family members.

College Dorm Food: There is a second problem. Most children with autoimmune diseases are unable to eat several kinds of food. Have you noticed how the number of gluten allegic people around you recently has increased? Many of them are now in college dormitaries. Yet, colleges have not adapted. Their dorms still serve food not catering to the large number of children with autoimmune diseases. These children have to cook for themselves sometimes in campus miles away from decent grocery stores within walking distance from dormitaries. Also, there are no kitchens. Colleges are in denial that their student population may be allergic or have digestive issues rising at an alarming pace. Who is going to raise this issue? Parents are required to encourage their children to be independent and go away to college. That is what media has encouraged with subtle messages. Children may no longer confidentally go to their local college and continue to live at home, like their parents when they went to college. Now, the kids must cross states and pay phenomenal college fees.

College Jobs: The college fees means the children often have to work to ofset costs. How does a child coping with the stress of autoimmune disease deal with studies, cooking and a job? Get frequently ill and then finally collapse. Who is looking out for our kids with autoimmune diseases in college? Are Professors going to actively arrange for these kids to get suitable jobs for these kids so that they do not have to get jobs that will be beyound what their chronic fatigue may be able to handle? Some colleges have fees close to $60,000 annually.

Eating Groups: The kids are meeting to discuss food lifestyles.  Meet up eating groups are forming to discuss safe food groups such as this one for ‘Eating for the A’s: Autism, Atopic, ADHD, Asthma…‘ for dietary and lifestyle factors for healing childhood diseases. It has well-attended gatherings with speakers like Author, Karen Ranzi, who is on a mission to teach all who care for how to eat for the A’s, a person named Lisa who led a workshop on sprouting healthy food on your window sill. It was established in 2008 to face the observation how weak and young people are these days when compared to their grandparents.

There are some physical health issues that go with A’s and only one of them may be chronic fatigue. Just because these A kids look good does not mean all is good in the inside.

What can you do? In the memory of all the kids who have suffered from the A’s, become a founder of such eating groups and alert your school, college and community to a growing epidemic of otherwise wonderful children with A’s who simply cannot eat the food that our grandparents and their grandparents ate. They have a real issue that appears to be common – an inability to tolerate various food groups. Why? Perhaps, you can encourage more people in your community to begin to ask this question. Chances are at some point it will touch someone in your cirlce. How can we as a society stop this recent increase in A’s in the society we have created?

Related Articles

1) High and Low levels of iron linked to breast cancer prognosis
2) Heavy Periods as a side reaction to Juvenile Arthritis treatment
3) Mutations in our genes linked to heavy iron load?
4) Review of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis by Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center
5) “Children aged 4-21 afflicted with JRA are elligible for a wish grant
6) “Joint pains after vaccination” by John Haines, health educator.

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Review of current Tourettes treatments that may be available for Le Roy girls


Quote…”The best treatment of Tourette’s symptoms out of the methods described – between antipsychotic medications, behavioral remedies, and simply letting time take its toll – is perhaps the behavioral method. As in Susan’s case, the symptoms were drastically reduced within the length of the experiment. Those who use this method will not have to deal with recurring and costly medication fees and also would not have to deal with the side-effects involved in taking medication. By learning to suppress tics, one can maintain a more long-term effect of tic reduction. Behavioral methods such as response prevention, therefore, may be the best option for Tourette’s patients.  …

habit reversal, appears to be a good alternative for Tourette’s patients who do not wish to use medicinal treatments due to the side-effects or other reasons. Response prevention has been shown to have about the same high level of efficacy as habit reversal (Phelps, 2008).

The final method of treatment, as of now, is simply time. A significant reduction in tics occurs naturally by the age of 19 or 20, and one affected by Tourette’s could choose to wait for that (Phelps, 2008). Of course, waiting for the tics to recede naturally is not guaranteed; Tourette’s-afflicted adults still tic although often to a lesser degree. Going without treatment may not be the best option, however. Those who have Tourette’s experience the worst of the symptoms during their childhood and adolescence. The social consequences of freely exhibiting tics often include teasing, bullying, and estrangement, as seen in the case study examined. The psychological impact on the child may have very negative effects for self-esteem, especially during school age years when the child’s peers are more prone to making hurtful comments,

The best treatment of Tourette’s symptoms out of the methods described – between antipsychotic medications, behavioral remedies, and simply letting time take its toll – is perhaps the behavioral method.”

…unquote

This quote is from this article by a researcher who summarized the then current view on Tourettes therapy. It is a well-written, thoughtfully researched article by a scholar who truly cares about the plight of Tourettes patients in a community of peers who find it difficult to accept anybody different. Exhibiting Tics in a society setting is treated as an embarrassment.

The abstract of the article by a researcher in Psychology Kathy Chen, follows below. She has listed relevant references from 1980 until 2009.
Tourette’s Syndrome
Abstract
This paper describes of the symptoms of Gilles de la Tourette’s Syndrome and the treatment
options available for those who have this disorder. One case study of a man with Tourette’s is examined, which provides information about the disorder’s effect on his social interactions with others as well as his explanations for the irresistible tics he experiences. The three main types of treatment methods – medicinal, behavioral, and the natural reduction of symptoms with time – are discussed. Then, a specific experiment which describes a girl named Susan and her successful treatment with a behavioral remedy is discussed.

Kathy Chen has summarized current choices in Tourettes therapy in her article and explains why behavioral therapy may prove to be most beneficial. Now, how does current research in Tourettes syndrome assist the 12 girls in Le Roy High school exhibiting similar symptoms?

Tourettes and Public Health
As a society, we have failed to stop the rising trend of Tic exhibiting diseases. While the Tourettes name was given to a diagnosis in 1884, the sudden rise in Tourettes like symptoms since 1980s has been largely ignored by citizens. Parents of patients have had to resort to forming their own communities and locate physicians willing to research this rising phenomenon. Generally, Tourettes is found in young, school aged boys. It appears to improve by the age of 19, with Tics presenting sometimes under stressful situations.

12 girls with Tourettes like syndrome at Le Roy High School
This makes the situation at Le Roy High School with 12 girls, all of them 17 years of age, presenting with the symptoms an unusual situation. That is why is heartening to learn that the National Institute of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland has offered to treat these girls free of charge. Their unusual case requires not only personalized treatment but also extensive, collaborative, multi-pronged research into why 12 girls and not boys showed Tourettes like symptoms. Some factors the girls may have shared:

1) Everybody knows how stressful the final years of school can be, especially when grades and sports become equally important for college applications. Those applications begin in september and are mostly done by December. The girls began showing symptoms in september. Stress was a common factor.

2) Did  all the girls have the gardasil vaccine?

3) Did all these girls have a strep throat infection?

4) Did all these girls get exposed to the same lawn herbicide just before a game?

5) Did all these girls have the same snack with a long list of ingredients perhaps before a game or from the same snack machine? Perhaps, an energy drink? Perhaps, a crunchy snack?

6) Are all these girls bulimic perhaps, and share a mineral imbalance from binging and throwing up?

7) Do all these girls have a member in their family with multiple sclerosis, autism, or dyslexia?

The researchers are going to look into what else the girls had in common. What factors did they share that caused only them to exhibit symptoms? All 17 year olds in that school were exposed to similar levels of stress, similar environment in school grounds and lived within a few miles of each other and so the same community environment.

Erin Brokovich’s inquiry into Le Roy Tourettes cases
The train derailment in 1970 close to that community was brought to light by environmental crusader Erin Brokovich and her research team. It was one of the worst chemical spills in the state of New York resulting in a superfund clean up site, one of several in the nation. Her team wants answers to two primary questions:
1) Is it a temporary occurrence in the environment?
2) Temporary occurrence from some sort of biological event (not ruling out the role of environment)?

Genetics and its role in Le Roy Tourettes cases
Tourettes patients have shown to have genetics connecting them to some members of their family, especially some twins, showing similar symptoms. While there is a supposedly genetic connection, no single gene or set of genes stands out. This is therefore, a complex research scenario when in Tourettes cases in Le Roy all were 17 year old girls, within the same environment, with no obvious genetic history to the Tourettes symptoms. How then are the researchers to proceed?

Naturally, a multi-pronged research study will be the choice. One cannot rule out any factor the girls may have shared until proved otherwise. Then, the role of stress genes and how they might interplay with the genes triggered by the said common factor/s identified.

The Le Roy High School girls are fortunate that NIH researchers will now examine their unusual case from every possible angle. NIH has some of the finest researchers in this field. All along, dedicated Physicians will attempt to treat the symptoms with no knowledge of what may have caused the Tourettes-like symptoms to appear in the first place. Naturally, they will try the behavior treatment detailed above by Kathy Chen, which has proven beneficial in the past. This will have the least or no adverse affect. They might also prescribe clinical drugs, but these may have adverse effects. Considering that such symptoms ease by the age of 19, the physicians will have to balance their choices. Should they wait for these girls to show improvement around age 19? Tourettes has mostly been observed until recently in boys and hence studied in boys. Would it also follow a similar course in girls?

Do you see Tourettes-like cases in your community rising?
Do your grandparents observe that such cases like Tourettes and Autism were never seen in their communities?
Do your parents observe that Tourettes and Autism were never seen in such large numbers in their classrooms?
In recent years, does your school district have rising numbers of children with Tourettes, Autism, Leukemia and Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis?
If yes, have you ever wondered why? If yes, have you begun to ask questions?

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Choosing sunglasses: Designer brands or a generic brand to save your retina?


To wear or not to wear designer sunglasses? Are ordinary sunglasses just as good as designer brands in function? What valuable features should one look out for when purchasing a sunglass?

Function
Firstly, the purchaser has to decide the primary function of the sunglass:
1) To look like a celebrity, or
2) To avoid outdoor glare while
a. skiing
b. surfing or fishing or water sports
c. hiking or outdoor, non-water or skiing sports

Durability
My research finds is hard to combine the above two choices. However, some sporty find durability is a feature that must be valuable. The frame must not celebrities have made many functional choices quite desirable! After functionality, I snap easily. The frame material should be able to withstand heat for sure. After all, are not sunglasses supposed to be worn in serious sunlight? I have heard many complaints of sunglasses simply snapping easily in extreme heat. So, I would give the highest value to a frame that can withstand the highest, recorded temperatures in the world. It would be thoughtful if the manufacturer planned ahead for global warming, in case our planet warmed significantly higher during the lifetime of the purchased sunglasses. The lenses have to be scratch resistant. One tends to drop glasses and they do manage to find the only sharp object to fall upon. Also, one tends to clean lenses with material lying around and rarely the chamois supplied by the manufacturer, because either it gets lost or is never conveniently close by. It would be a shame to pay a lot for sunglasses only to find that an innocent cleaning or a perfectly normal “dropping” produced a scratch on the dark lenses. It is quite possible that the damage happens within a week after purchase. That would be an absolute waste. So, durable sunglasses is important to me. Some retailers provide life-time warranty for durability claims. This warranty is worth the purchase price when shopping around. Yes, expensive designer glasses do break and a warranty would replace them for free. If you lose them, however, the warranty does not cover a replacement.

Superior Technology Claims
Personally, I feel this should be the most important feature in a sunglass when the function of the sunglass is eye protection. However, the reason I put this most important feature after durability is because it would be senseless to pay for superior technology mounted on an inferior frame and non-scratch resistant lens.

Smokey showcasing a selection of
Pinnacle Performance Eyewear

Designer Brands: Now, lets review the few designer brands that claim superior technology available today and marketed to attract your purchasing power:
1) Water sport athletes favor Costa Del Mar sunglasses. Patented WAVE 580 lens, enhanced color discrimination, sharper contrast, better definition, ultimate UV protection, 100% polarization, glare control – Light above 580 nm is extremely intolerable because of glare. Visual acuity is improved by controlling this glare, making it a preferred choice of some professional water athletes, even in extreme weather conditions. Comes with a life-time warranty from the factory – invaluable!

Costa Del Mar Sunglasses
Costa Del Mar, headquartered in Ormond Beach, Florida, is the leader in polarized eyewear, offering more than 30 styles and 16 lens options.

2) Aviators to extreme sports athletes may prefer a technology that removes the need to squint in harsh sunlight. This feature is provided by Eagle Eyes sunglasses designed by NASA scientists from the discovery that eagles have unique oil droplets that process all harmful radiation to protect the eagles eyes. Visual clarity is achieved by allowing only specifically save wavelengths to enter the eye using their patented Trilenium Gold lens technology. Obviously, a worthy use of citizens tax dollars. Provides clip-ons for those with prescription glasses in some styles, which can be very useful if your prescription changes frequently.
Using their patented Polarized Trilenium Gold Lens Technology, Eagle Eyes lenses make everything vivid and sharper, relaxing your eyes and erasing the need to squint.

Eagle Eye Sunglasses

3) For Athletes who prefer sunglasses endorsed by high-level ski and surf athletes, Electric sunglasses is the brand. The frames can hopefully withstand the cruelest temperatures because it is made of memory retaining, mold-injected grylamide. The lenses are highest grade polycarbonate blocking out 100% of UV rays.

Electric Sunglasses
Electric Sunglasses lenses have the highest-grade polycarbonate lenses available, blocking one hundred percent of UV rays while filtering out harmful UVA, UVB and UVC rays.

4) For quality materials, style, and value you may want Ray-Ban sunglasses which set the standard for all American sunglasses when it launched the aviator sunglasses in 1937. I was very impressed by its polarized feature. To truly understand the function of a polarized lens, walk into a sunglass store, try on a polarized Ray-Ban and look out of very sunny window. You have to experience the difference to truly understand what polarized is attempting to achieve. Todays improved technology allows for a superior polarized lens material to be sandwiched in the lens during manufacture, allowing for a longer lifespan of this lens.

Ray-Ban-Sunglasses
Ray-Ban Sunglasses were launched in 1937 with their Ray-Ban Aviator Sunglasses brand, setting the standard for American sunglasses.

As for the designer brands which claim style over function, it is an individual’s choice as an expression of their personality.  You have a right to express yourself. Be bold and be yourself.

Related Articles
You may also like:
Three patents by Reginald Henry Bradshaw on spectacles, eyeglasses and tinted glasses

I bought this non-brand polarized sunglass; should I have selected a brand?(See above photo of Pinnacle Performance Eyewear)

To purchase eyeglasses from an online retailer, you will need to provide your pupillary distance (PD)

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